Cognitive Theory and Cognitive Behavior Theory
By now, you may recognize that no one theory will explain and predict every phenomenon.
Theory guides the development of specific therapeutic modalities. To understand a therapy, it may be helpful to first review the historical forces of psychology. The first force was psychoanalysis, the second force was behaviorism, the third force was humanism, and the fourth force was multiculturalism. Drawing from this progression, the first wave of behavior theory argued that all behaviors are learned and if one wants to modify behaviors, then one can unlearn them. This led to behavioral therapy based on rewards and punishment, which is considered the first wave of behavioral therapy. Since then, cognitive theory was introduced, arguing that it is crucial to factor individuals’ mental states and cognitions. Over the years, Aaron Beck’s cognitive behavior therapy, Albert Ellis’s rational emotive theory, and William Glasser’s choice theory have become prominent, falling into the second wave of cognitive therapy. Finally, the third wave of behavioral therapies include dialectical behavioral therapy, mindfulness-based cognitive behavior therapy, and acceptance and commitment therapy.
This week, you explore several theoretical orientations that fall under cognitive and cognitive behavior theory. Continue to pay special attention to the theories’ merits and limitations in how they apply to real-life situations.
- Apply cognitive and cognitive behavior theories to social work practice
- Evaluate research studies on cognitive and cognitive behavior treatment
- Evaluate the strengths and limitations of cognitive and cognitive behavior theories
Photo Credit: [Science Photo Library – PASIEKA]/[Brand X Pictures]/Getty Images
Note: To access this week’s required library resources, please click on the link to the Course Readings List, found in the Course Materials section of your Syllabus.
Turner, F. J. (Ed.). (2017). Social work treatment: Interlocking theoretical approaches (6th ed.). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Chapter 4: Cognitive Behavior Theory and Social Work Treatment (pp. 54–79)
Chapter 5: Cognitive Theory and Social Work Treatment (pp. 80–95)
González-Prendes, A. A., & Thomas, S. A. (2009). Culturally sensitive treatment of anger in African American women: A single case study. Clinical Case Studies, 8(5), 383–402. https://doi-org.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/10.1177/1534650109345004
Note: You will access this article from the Walden Library databases.
Graham, M. A., Sauerheber, J. D., & Britzman, M. J. (2013). Choice theory and family counseling: A pragmatic, culturally sensitive approach. Family Journal, 21(2), 230–234. https://doi-org.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/10.1177/1066480712466538
Note: You will access this article from the Walden Library databases.
Sommers-Flanagan, J., & Sommers-Flanagan, R. (2014). Counseling and psychotherapy theories in context and practice [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.psychotherapy.net.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/stream/waldenu/video?vid=277
Gregory, V. L. (2010). Cognitive-behavioral therapy for bipolar disorder: implications for clinical social workers. Journal of Social Service Research, 36(5), 460–469. https://doi.org/10.1080/01488376.2010.510950
Gregory, V. L. (2010). Cognitive-behavioral therapy for schizophrenia: applications to social work practice. Social Work in Mental Health, 8(2), 140–159. https://doi.org/10.1080/15332980902791086
Pössel, P., & Knopf, K. (2011). Bridging the gaps: An attempt to integrate three major cognitive depression models. Cognitive Therapy & Research, 35(4), 342–358. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10608-010-9325-z
(Only read pp. 342–344)
Hinton, D. E., & Pollack, M. H. (2009). Introduction to the special issue: Anxiety disorders in cross-cultural perspective. CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics, 15(3), 207–209. doi:10.1111/j.1755-5949.2009.00097.x
Robey, P., Burdenski, T. K., Britzman, M., Crowell, J., & Cisse, G. S. (2011). Systemic applications of choice theory and reality therapy: An interview with Glasser Scholars. The Family Journal, 19(4), 427–433. https://doi.org/10.1177/1066480711415038
Discussion: Using Research to Select a Therapeutic Modality
Imagine that some of your colleagues mention using cognitive behavior therapy, dialectical behavioral therapy, acceptance and commitment therapy, and reality therapy. Your colleagues continue to say that based on their experiences, they really like these therapies and that they appear to work. Your instincts also tell you that perhaps they might be helpful for your client in your case study. However, from Week 1, you recall that experiences and instincts as sources of knowledge are quite limited because they are biased. Instead, it is important to utilize existing research and data to support your choices of interventions. Theory helps inform the evidence-based practice process that should guide social workers’ practice.
In this Discussion, you examine the research related to a therapy based on cognitive or cognitive behavior theory to determine its effectiveness.
- Recall the client from the case study you have been using in this course. You will apply your research for this Discussion to that client.
- Select one therapy from the following: cognitive behavior therapy, dialectical behavioral therapy, acceptance and commitment therapy, or reality therapy.
- Conduct a search in the Walden Library for one peer-reviewed research study about the effectiveness of the therapy you selected.
- Note: You must select a study that has not already been used by a colleague in the Discussion. Each student is required to identify a unique research study.
- Remember when looking for studies to take into account your client’s age and developmental stage and presenting problem.
By Day 3
- Provide the reference for the study you found using APA guidelines.
- Briefly paraphrase, in 2 to 3 sentences, the methodological context (i.e., research method, how data was collected, and the instruments used) of the study and the findings.
- Evaluate the findings in terms of its applicability or appropriateness for the client in your case study.
- Determine whether you would use or not use the therapy you selected for the client in your selected case study (consider how culturally relevant it is, how aligned it is with social work ethics, etc.) and explain why.
By Day 5
Respond to two colleagues who selected a case study different from yours:
- Compare and contrast the article you selected with your colleague’s article in terms of how they might inform appropriateness for use with the identified client.
- Explain how reviewing the different studies presented in this Discussion influenced your decision about whether you would use the therapy, given various evidence for the different treatment modalities.
Assignment: Application of Cognitive Behavior Theory to a Case Study
This week, your theoretical orientation is cognitive behavior theory. You will use the same case study that you chose in Week 2 and have been analyzing in this course. Use the “Dissecting a Theory and Its Application to a Case Study” worksheet to help you dissect the theory. You do not need to submit this handout. It is a tool for you to use to dissect the theory and then you can employ the information in the table to complete your assignment.
In this Assignment, you prepare a 5-minute video case presentation. It is common to present a case analysis in multidisciplinary team meetings or with your supervisor and colleagues. This assignment offers you an opportunity to provide insights and perspectives to a case.
To upload your media for this Assignment, use the Kaltura Media option from the mashup tool drop-down menu. Refer to the Kaltura Media Uploader area in the course navigation menu for more information about how to upload media to the course.
By Day 7
Submit a Kaltura video of yourself discussing the client. Your video should be no longer than 5 minutes.
- Although this is a professional presentation, it is not a formal presentation as in a speech. Imagine that you are discussing your case with a group of peers in a meeting. For example, if you stumble a bit, don’t feel you have to record yourself again.
- You can have notes in front of you to help you remember your points.
- However, your video does need to be professional. In other words, dress professionally and conduct yourself as if you are in an agency setting with colleagues and supervisors. Be sure to maintain eye contact as if you were speaking in front of your colleagues. Finally, be sure to record yourself in a room that is quiet and where no one interrupts you.
Your video presentation should include the following:
- In 1 to 2 sentences, identify and describe the presenting problem.
- In 1 to 2 sentences, briefly define and conceptualize the problem from a cognitive-behavioral theoretical orientation.
- Formulate 2 assessment questions that you will ask the client to better understand the client’s problem. Remember, the assessment questions should be guided by cognitive-behavioral theory.
- In 1 to 2 sentences, identify two goals for treatment. Again, remember, the goals should be consistent with cognitive-behavioral theory.
- In 1 to 2 sentences, describe the treatment plan from a cognitive-behavioral theoretical orientation. Remember, the treatment plan should align with the goal(s) for work.
- Discuss one outcome you would measure, if you were to evaluate whether the intervention worked, and explain how this is consistent with cognitive behavior theory. Evaluate one merit and one limitation of cognitive behavior theory as it relates to the case study.
- Evaluate the application of cognitive-behavioral theory in relation to a diversity issue pertinent to the case.
Be sure to:
- Identify and correctly reference the case study you have chosen.
- Speak clearly
Jamiah Cruz RE: Discussion – Week 6COLLAPSE
The reference I used for my search was Foster, J. M. (2017). The Fears and Futures of Boy Victims of Sexual Abuse: An Analysis of Narratives. Journal of Child Sexual Abuse, 26(6), 710-730. doi:10.1080/10538712.2017.1339223. According to the text Foster, J. M. (2017). The centers for disease control and prevention in 2005 asserts that 1 in 4 girls and 1 in 6 boys are sexually abused before the age of 18. Mostly 50 percent of women and 28 percent men who sees counselors have history of sexual abuse. Most individual turn down help because they aren’t ready to talk about the trauma. They would always need to seek help to cope with others because of their fear. Sexual abuse clients will always have a issue coping with others and they will always see the world is unsafe. Tiffani recieved helped at the home she resigned in and she decided to try and cope with her parents and the world. I say I would use cognitive Behavior therapy because it’s a process they go by step by step to see if you can improve off the steps they are going by. She couldn’t cope with the individuals that hurt her but she ended up coping with her sister.
Provide the reference for the study you found using APA guidelines.
Boone, M. S., Mundy, B., Morrissey Stahl, K., & Genrich, B. E. (2015). Acceptance and Commitment Therapy, Functional Contextualism, and Clinical Social Work. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 25(6), 643–656.
Briefly paraphrase, in 2 to 3 sentences, the methodological context (i.e., research method, how data was collected, and the instruments used) of the study and the findings.
This article discusses the fit between social work and acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT), a mindfulness-based cognitive behavioral therapy that meets all of these criteria. As of 2011, approximately two thirds of ACT studies had included mediation analyses, statistical tests that determine whether changes in measured outcomes (e.g., degree of depression, quality of life) are driven, at least in part, by the processes theorized by the treatment model (Hayes et al., 2011). This kind of analysis is important because when a treatment works, it is often difficult to determine the primary mediating.
Evaluate the findings in terms of its applicability or appropriateness for the client in your case study.
ACT ultimately offer social workers useful tools for supporting growth and change in their clients. ACT uses metaphors, mindfulness, and experiential exercises to help clients contact experientially what it is like to simply notice their internal experiences (e.g., thoughts, feelings, memories) rather than trying to change them.
Determine whether you would use or not use the therapy you selected for the client in your selected case study (consider how culturally relevant it is, how aligned it is with social work ethics, etc.) and explain why.
I would indeed use ACT in Tiffani’s case as ACT undermines the power of socially and verbally constructed ways of relating by helping clients become more present to their moment-to-moment experience (Boone et al., 2015). Through this form of therapy Tiffani’s feelings and experiences are still there, but her relationship to them are different. Her thoughts and feelings will become more like what she experienced, rather than representations of how the world is.